Intangible Cultural Heritage of Jiuhuashan Geopark

2018-05-10

1.National Intangible Cultural Heritage ——Qingyang Opera

Qingyang opera mainly exist in Qingyang County of Anhui Province and Hukou County of Jiangxi Province.

During the years of Jiajing in Ming Dynasty, Geyang Opera spreading to the Qingyang Jiuhuashan Area, combined with the local dialect and folk songs, formed Qingyang Opera. This new sound cavity breaks through the musical structure of the melody, developed “Gundiao”, created a form of singing combined by tune and roll, which contributed to the sound cavity of Chinese Opera.

Qingyang Opera prospered in Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty, from the Sothern Anhui Province to Anqing and Jiangxi Province, Hubei Province, Sichuan Province, Hunan Province and so on, lasting over 500 years. During the years of Wanli in Ming Dynasty, Qingyang Opera was famous over the country, influenced the formation and development of Mulian Opera, Hui Drama, Huangmei Opera, Chuan Opera, Gan Opera, Peking Opera and so on, especially it is related to the Peking Opera, so it was called the “originator” of Peking Opera.

Qingyang Opera is very plentiful, form by two parts: singing music; gong and drum music. Singing with gongs and drums, without favorite Chinese Instrumentals, combined with chorus, solo and helping to sing, which makes live atmosphere more active. Especially for singing with Gundiao, Gunbai and Gunchang, longer than narrate, and the lyrics are more sentient than the sounds. During the performance, the freestyle will be more appealing to audience.

There are more than 90 kinds of traditional repertoires (including 65 kinds of dramas and 29 kinds of small plays) retained by Qingyang Opera, and most of them belong to the Nan Opera in Song Dynasty and Yuan Dynasty.

In 2006, Qingyang Opera was included in the first national intangible cultural heritage list.

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2.National Intangible Cultural Heritage ——Jiuhuashan Temple Fair

Every year around July 30 of lunar calendar, Buddhist and local people in Jiuhuashan will hold grand celebration for the birthday of Ksitigarbha Bodhisattva, appealing surrounding believers and tourists to gather here, gradually formed the Jiuhuashan Temple Fair.

During the late years of Kaiyuan in Tang Dynasty, Kim Gyo-gak traveled from ancient Silla to Jiuhuashan cultivated himself. In the July 30 of lunar calendar in 10 years of Zhenyuan in Tang Dynasty (AD 794 years), he died at the age of 99, his body stayed intact after being preserved in a jar, the monks there b

elieved that Ksitigarbha Bodhisattva was reincarnated in him. Thus, the Jiuhuashan became the place to hold rites for Ksitigarbha Bodhisattva. In honor of this monk, every year on this day, pilgrims will hold Buddhist ceremonies. During the temple fairs, local and surrounding residents will gather here to do business for selling local goods and perform folk culture program.

Jiuhuashan Temple Fairs is belonging to traditional holiday fair, which is a comprehensive folk activity contains religious belief, business folk, arts and entertainment and so on. The religious belief including exorcism, praying for safety, the peace of all beings, the business folk including business communication, hundreds of pilgrim head for Jiuhuashan, lion dance and dragon lantern dance, tower defense and so on. The forms are various, the style is unique, to show the charming Buddhist culture and folk culture in Jiuhuashan.

In 2012, Jiuhuashan Temple Fairs was included in the second national intangible cultural heritage list. 

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3.Provincial Intangible Cultural Heritage ——Jiuhua Folk Songs

Jiuhua Folk Songs, also named “Jiuhua Mountain Songs” or Qingyang Folk Songs, widely spreading in Jiuhuashan area including Miaoqian, Ducun, Nanyang in Qingyang County and Liu Street, Mei Street in Guichi area now. It is a folk singing way with regional features formed by work people to express themselves.

Jiuhua Folk Songs are divided into Mountain Songs, Tea Songs, Transplant Songs by contents; Love Songs, Work Songs, Business and Study Songs, Life Styles Songs by themes. Among them, “Mountain (Jiuhuashan), Tea (Buddhist Tea), Buddha (Buddhism)” are formed the main features, this is an identity of Jiuhua Folk Songs.

Jiuhua Folk Songs have solo, duet, chorus, helping to sing in terms of performance form, which was influenced by the Buddhism culture. The most of lyrics are written by the public, and there are also forms of improvisation. Due to the lack of written records of expression, most of the content has now disappeared in the long history. At present, the Jiuhua Folk Songs handed down several kinds of tune-up styles, such as “Yuncaohaozi”, “Tuancao Song”, “Tea Song”, and “Mengexiaodaio” and so on.

The language of Jiuhua Folk Song is simple and vivid, and easy to understand, and the melody of different tunes and tones is fresh and smooth, which is improvisation and represent the voice of worker.

In 2017, Jiuhua Folk Songs was included in the provincial intangible cultural heritage list.

4.Provincial Intangible Cultural Heritage ——Jiuhuashan Buddhist Music

 Jiuhuashan Buddhist Music is called Buddhist chants, which is the tune of Buddhist songs. When Buddhist activities were held, Buddhists praised the merits of the Buddha by chanting. It is an integral part of Buddhist culture.

Jiuhuashan Buddhist Music is diverse in style, with five pitches: gong, shang, jue, zhi, yu. It is characterized by a wide variety of musical expressions and different styles and tastes. Scales are dominated by pentatonic scales, and the melody has little bias. Most of the beats are 4/4 beats, and most of them sing on the beats. Each melody card usually uses the first two words to make introductions, start by the Weina (Buddhist title) to raise the tune. The rhythm is relatively free, and then the public chants slowly and rhythmically. Most of the singing styles are chanting, singing in one person, chorus, and lead singing, duet, solo, and chanting. Accompanied by percussion instruments like Wooden fish, Big chime, Intro chime, Drum, Bell, Suona, Dizi and Erhu while singing.

Jiuhuashan Buddhist Music is rich in content and has more than a hundred tunes. It is closely related to local folk music including operas. Part of it is the popular folk music in the local area. The tune in the Shuilufahui is popular among local tunes. Folk songs and traditional operas are similar in style and flavor, and they are rich in folk colors and folklore.

In 2007, Jiuhuashan Buddhist Music was included in the first provincial intangible cultural heritage list.

5.Provincial Intangible Cultural Heritage ——Jiuhua Folding Fan

 Jiuhua Folding Fan is called “Qingyang Folding Fan”, it was famous in Ming Dynasty, taken as the royal tribute during Kangxi and Qianlong in Qing Dynasty.

The selection of Jiuhua Folding Fan materials is extremely delicate, the fan bones have sandalwood, agilawood, bamboos, and all kinds of wood. The crafts include shell carving, lacquerware, gold sprinkling on lacquer, varnish, and hollowed edge bone. These fan bones are in different shape, some looks like forked tail, some are hide in the fan. In terms of fan, there are three blank white papers, five colored ones, those with a cheeky face, those with a gold cover, and those with a gold sprinkling.

Big Jiuhua Water Mill Jade Bone Silk Fan is the boutique of Jiuhua Folding Fan. In particular, Buddhist fans and Jiuhuashan panoramic fans with Buddhist cultural backgrounds drawn with gold powder have typical traditional historical culture and regional characteristics.

Big Jiuhua Water Mill Jade Bone Silk Fan are made by fine workmanship, sophisticated materials, different styles, rich fan patterns, and various forms of painting. It is hand-made by traditional methods. The fan bones are made of more than three years bamboos in Jiuhuashan area. After breaking and smashing, selecting materials, forming, and then using scientific formulas to prevent mildew and moth, then use wild leaves to dredge and grind the water. The silk fan cloth produced is mounted and hand-painted on it.

In 2010, Big Jiuhua Water Mill Jade Bone Silk Fan was included in the provincial intangible cultural heritage list.

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6.Provincial Intangible Cultural Heritage ——Qingyang Peasant Painting

Qingyang Peasant Painting art is a unique painting art that gradually developed on the basis of ancient folk arts such as ancient brick carvings, stone carvings, wood carvings, paper cuttings, and wall paintings in Jiuhuashan in Qingyang and surrounding areas. It has the characteristics of literati painting complementing peasant paintings.

Qingyang Peasant Painting are based on people around them and their surroundings as the main theme. They have strong time characteristics and a strong atmosphere of life. They are known for their rich colors, delicate lines, and unique composition.

Qingyang located in the south bank of the Yangtze River, literati have lingered here since ancient times, which gained a reputation of “land of poetry and literature, and hometown of painting and calligraphy”. According to the “Qingyang County History”, local people Linhengshan made friend with painting during Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty. In Qing Dynasty, there are painting and calligraphy lovers, they organized folk painting agency, made a lot of Brahmin, practiced painting and calligraphy, attracted continuously peasant seeking for paints.

In the 1970s, a group of peasant painters and painters emerged in the county. Their paintings were not only loved by the local people, but also accepted by the public. In May 1982, the province's rural art work symposium was held in Qingyang, which promoted the development of Qingyang Peasant Paintings. At the National Farmers' Painting Exhibition in 1983, many works created by Qingyang farmers won great prizes. Since then, the number of peasant painting and calligraphy enthusiasts in the county has grown to more than 100 people, affecting both inside and outside the province.

In 2007, Qingyang Peasant Painting was included in the first provincial intangible cultural heritage list.

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